Download A practical guide to transmission electron microscopy. by Zhiping Luo PDF

By Zhiping Luo

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is an important software for characterizing quite a few varieties of fabrics. utilizing a gentle microscope, the imaging solution is at numerous hundred nanometers, and for a scanning electron microscope, SEM, at numerous nanometers. The imaging solution of the TEM, despite the fact that, can many times succeed in a number of angstroms on a modem software. furthermore, the TEM may also supply material Read more...

summary: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is the most important software for characterizing quite a few forms of fabrics. utilizing a gentle microscope, the imaging answer is at numerous hundred nanometers, and for a scanning electron microscope, SEM, at a number of nanometers. The imaging answer of the TEM, in spite of the fact that, can generally achieve a number of angstroms on a modem tool. furthermore, the TEM may also offer fabric structural info, because the electrons penetrate in the course of the skinny specimens, and chemical compositional details end result of the robust electron-specimen atom interactions. these days, TEM is commonly utilized in varied parts in either actual sciences (chemistry, engineering, geosciences, fabrics technology, and physics) and lifestyles sciences (agriculture, biology, and medicine), enjoying a key function in study or improvement for cloth layout, synthesis, processing, or functionality. This publication presents a concise useful consultant to the TEM consumer, ranging from the newbie point, together with upper-division undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and engineers, on tips to study TEM successfully in a quick time period. it really is written basically for fabrics technological know-how and engineering or comparable disciplines, whereas a few functions in lifestyles sciences also are integrated. It covers lots of the components utilizing TEM, together with the instrumentation, pattern guidance, diffraction, imaging, analytical microscopy, and a few newly built complex microscopy ideas. In every one subject, a theoretical historical past is to start with in short defined, with step by step directions in experimental operation or computation. a few technical information are given with a purpose to receive the simplest effects. the sensible techniques to obtain, examine, and interpret the TEM info are hence supplied. This ebook may possibly function a textbook for a TEM path or workshop, or a reference booklet for the TEM person to enhance their TEM abilities

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Additional resources for A practical guide to transmission electron microscopy. Volume II, : Advanced microscopy

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Eq. 21 corresponds to the minimum point of the χ curve, which satisfies dχ/du =0. Under the Scherzer defocus condition, 34 A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the sinχ curve, exhibits a wide flat range with the valley value of −1. This range can transfer the contrast with the same sign (all negative) and with the highest contrast (at or near −1, far away from zero). Therefore, this condition is the optimum condition for HRTEM phase-contrast imaging with the highest contrast. The first zero point, as marked with uSch , is the limit to reveal details that is the resolution of the microscope rSch , as shown in Fig.

2. Chemical analysis in conjunction with X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) using a fine beam, such as point, line scan, and mapping (refer to Chapter 8). 3. Imaging beam-sensitive samples [7]. The focused beam on a small area in a short time makes less damage compared with the entire area illumination in the TEM mode. IMAGING II 25 4. Imaging thicker samples. For thick samples, the TEM image becomes blurry since the object cannot be focused because of chromatic aberrations, whereas the chromatic aberration does not affect the STEM imaging contrast.

By the double deflection scan coils, the electron beam is deflected away from the optical axis, whereas after the objective prefield (or condenser lens C3), the beam is aligned back straightly parallel to the optical axis. Therefore, the electron beam is controlled to be parallel to the optical axis during scanning over the specimen. The signals below the specimen can be collected by different detectors: bright-field (BF), annular dark-field (ADF), and high-angle annular darkfield (HAADF) detectors, as shown in Fig.

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