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By Chase Robinson

'Abd al-Malik, who got here to prominence in the course of the moment civil conflict of early Islam, governed the Islamic empire from 692 till 705. not just did he effectively suppress uprising in the Muslim global and extend its frontiers, yet in lots of respects he based the empire itself. by means of approximately seven hundred, the kinds of a brand new realm, which stretched from North Arica within the west to Iran within the east, has taken transparent form with 'Abd al-Malik at its head. This publication covers the beginnings and upward push to strength of this immensely influential caliph, in addition to his non secular regulations and concepts, his financial, administrative and armed forces reforms, and his legacy, together with the Dome of the Rock, the oldest surviving huge development erected via Muslims.

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It was almost certainly Ibn al-Zubayr’s status as a Companion that recommended Ibn al-Zubayr to this Sunni historian. Non-Sunnis found other reasons to grant Ibn al-Zubayr the caliphate. As one ninth-century historian said of the competing claims between ‘Abd al-Malik and Ibn al-Zubayr, “he who controls the two sanctuaries in Mecca and Medina and leads the pilgrimage thus merits the caliphate”: choosing between the two, he accordingly plumped for the latter (al-Ya‘qubi, ii, 321). Had we a Zubayrid historiography, it would represent Ibn al-Zubayr as a legitimate caliph who was overthrown by a rebel.

But instead of forging powerful instruments of rule (such as a salaried army and robust tax administration), he relied upon his own wits, the counsel and pull of tribal chiefs, and the remnants of Byzantine and Sasanian fiscal systems. “The Arabs had entered a world more civilized than their own,” one scholar has written, “and since they came not to destroy but to exploit, it was more reasonable to use a machinery already well adapted to that purpose than to try and replace it at once by something else” (Grierson, 242).

570; d. 632). Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya Son of ‘Ali. Muhammad b. Marwan ‘Abd al-Malik’s brother; governor of northern provinces. Mu‘awiya Governor in Syria for ‘Uthman and then caliph (r. 661–680). Muhajirun ‘Emigrants’ – those who emigrated with Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. Mukhtar Rebel during the Second Civil War. Mus‘ab b. al-Zubayr Brother of Ibn al-Zubayr; governor of Iraq. Shabib b. Yazid Kharijite rebel in Iraq. Sufyanids Family of the clan of Umayyads who ruled before the Marwanids. ‘Umar Second caliph (r.

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