By American Institute Of Steel Construction (Aisc), Structural Steel Educational Council
This six-part guide helps the 2005 AISC Seismic Provisions. It contains sections on normal layout issues; layout of structures using R = three (braced and second frames); layout of braced-frame structures using R > three; layout of second body structures using R > three; and layout of different platforms using R > three.
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Additional resources for AISC Seismic Design Manual
12, nitrogen protection within the 'air gap' is provided. It is recommended this is used in all continuous casting die construction. At or close to the solidification front the ingot shrinks away from the die forming the 'air gap'. This should be protected with a light flow of nitrogen otherwise oxidation and erosion of the graphite occur with time. There is some movement of the solidification front, back or forward during a casting run. The solidification front oscillates about a mean position and increase in speed or variation of the pulse length will alter this; any deterioration of the die surface due to oxidation/erosion will seriously impair the surface cast quality.
2, results in a steep temperature gradient and thick shell formation. Superheat is important and should be such that the metal temperature entering the die insert is around 100°C above the liquidus. This is an arbitrary figure, but superheat must be sufficient to maintain a uniform flow pattern and avoid any tendency to freeze back at the die/cooler entry. Insulation plays a vital part in the die/cooler construction by preventing inboard cooling and thus maintaining temperature at the die entry port.
The gas is expensive, and application is difficult to engineer. It is recommended that on all die design provision is made to introduce nitrogen into the shrinkage cavity in order to protect the graphite from oxidation. The nitrogen does not, in itself, improve heat transfer. 2 WATER SPRAY AT DIE EXIT In many applications, water spray-cooling at the exit from the die can simply be to facilitate handling of the cast product. On the other hand it can be a major 38 Heat Transfer component in the casting operation.