Download An Alternative History of Britain: The War of the Roses by Timothy Venning PDF

By Timothy Venning

Timothy Venning's exploration of the choice paths that British background could simply have taken strikes directly to the Wars of the Roses. What if Richard of York had no longer given conflict in useless? How might a victory for Warwick the Kingmaker on the conflict of Barnet replaced the process the fight for strength? What if the Princes had escaped from the tower or the Stanleys had now not betrayed their king at Bosworth? those are only a number of the attention-grabbing questions posed via this booklet.

As continuously, whereas unavoidably speculative, Dr. Venning discusses all of the eventualities in the good thing about a deep figuring out of the key using forces, tensions and developments that formed British historical past. In so doing, he is helping the reader to appreciate why issues panned out as they did, in addition to what could have been during this tumultuous interval.

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He replaced the mobile legions—which were essentially an offensive force—with a network of permanently settled frontier forces. The soldiers, composed increasingly of recruited federati, fanned out along the borders in smaller groups and farmed the land directly. This created, in effect, an entire perimeter defense. The fact that these soldiers supported themselves on the land helped to reduce the direct cost of maintaining so large an army. Nevertheless, the government needed significant increases in tax revenue.

The name derives from the fact that they rested on a belief in a number of sacred and eternal mysteries that initiates could approach via a new kind of sacramental priesthood. These new priests possessed spiritual power, not just ritual responsibilities, and having been granted unique access to the eternal mysteries by the gods, they alone could pass on the means to an otherworldly salvation. Hence the central nature of these new cults differed radically from traditional religions in that they focused less on explaining the events and actions of mortal life on earth, and more on preparing a way for humans to enter the real life that exists outside the bonds of earthly existence.

Whatever actually happened that night, Constantine renounced traditional paganism and declared his loyalty to the Christian God. Having won the throne, he put an end to the persecution of Christianity and extended the traditional policy of religious toleration to include Christianity explicitly. With its new protected status, the Christian faith began its ascendancy in the western world. S UGGESTED R EADING Texts Ammianus Marcellinus. History. Dio Cassius. History. Josephus. Antiquities. ———.

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